University of Paris (1160-
The University of Paris ( HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language” \o “French language” French: Université de Paris) was founded in the mid 12th century, likely between 1160 and 1170 (or possibly as early as 1150), HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \l “cite_note-0#cite_note-0”  In 1970 it was reorganized as 13 autonomous HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University” \o “University” universities (University of Paris I–XIII). The university is often referred to as the Sorbonne or La Sorbonne after the collegiate institution ( HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coll%C3%A8ge_de_Sorbonne” \o “Collège de Sorbonne” Collège de Sorbonne) founded about 1257 by Robert de Sorbon. The university as such was older and was never completely centered on the Sorbonne. Of the thirteen current successor universities, the first four have a presence in the historical Sorbonne building, and three include “Sorbonne” in their names.
Origin and early organization
Similarly to the other early HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medieval_university” \o “Medieval university” medieval universities ( HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Bologna” \o “University of Bologna” University of Bologna, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Cambridge” \o “University of Cambridge” University of Cambridge, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Oxford” \o “University of Oxford” University of Oxford), the University of Paris was well established before it received a specific foundation act from the Church in 1200. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \l “cite_note-3#cite_note-3”  The earliest historical reference to the university is found in HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_of_Paris” \o “Matthew of Paris” Matthew of Paris’s reference to his own teacher’s study (an abbot of St. Albans) and his acceptance into “the fellowship of the elect Masters” at the university of Paris in about 1170. HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Paris” \l “cite_note-bartleby.com-4#cite_note-bartleby.com-4”  Additionally, it is known that HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Innocent_III” \o “Pope Innocent III” Pope Innocent III, having assumed the papacy at the age of 37, had completed his studies in at the University of Paris by HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1182” \o “1182” 1182 at the age of 21. It grew up in the latter part of the twelfth century around the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Notre_Dame_de_Paris” \o “Notre Dame de Paris” Notre Dame Cathedral as a HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporation” \o “Corporation” corporation similar to other medieval corporations, such as HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guild” \o “Guild” guilds of merchants or artisans. The medieval Latin term universitas had the more general meaning of a guild. The university of Paris was known as a universitas magistrorum et scholarium (a guild of masters and scholars). Later universities such as the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_University_in_Prague” \o “Charles University in Prague” Charles University in Prague or the HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Heidelberg” \o “University of Heidelberg” University of Heidelberg had different origins.
The university had four HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faculty_(university)” \o “Faculty (university)” faculties: HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts” \o “Arts” Arts, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine” \o “Medicine” Medicine, HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law” \o “Law” Law, and HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theology” \o “Theology” Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but also the largest as students had to graduate there to be admitted to one of the higher faculties. The students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy, Picardy, and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian (German) nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe.